Basics
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that’s used for treating schizophrenic disorder, bipolar mania, and autism. Atypical antipsychotics are different from typical antipsychotics because they cause a lesser degree of movement (extrapyramidal) side effects and constipation. Risperdal Consta is an injectable, long-acting variety of risperidone.

The exact mechanism of action of risperidone isn’t best-known, but, like other anti-psychotics, it’s believed that risperidone affects the manner the brain works by meddling with communication among the brain’s nerves. Nerves communicate with one another by creating and releasing chemicals known as neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters get to other close nerves where they attach to receptors on the nerves. The attachment of the neurotransmitters either stimulates or inhibits the operation of the close nerves. Risperidone blocks many of the receptors on nerves as well as dopamine type 2, serotonin type 2, and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors. it’s believed that several psychotic sicknesses are caused by abnormal communication among nerves inside the brain and that by interrupting communication through neurotransmitters, risperidone will alter the psychotic state. Risperidone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in December 1993.

Uses

Risperidone is employed to treat schizophrenia, bipolar mania alone or combined with lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) or valproate (Depakene, Depacon) and for the treatment of irritability related to autistic disorder in kids and adolescents.

SIDE EFFECTS

The foremost commonly-noted side effects associated with risperidone are:
• insomnia,
• headache,
• dizziness,
• hyperactivity,
• drowsiness,
• abdominal pain,
• fatigue,
• fever, and
• nausea.

Another vital negative impact which can also occur include extrapyramidal effects (sudden, usually jerky, involuntary motions of the head, neck, arms, body, or eyes) also occur. Risperidone could cause a condition known as orthostatic hypotension during the early part of treatment (the first week or two). Patients who develop orthostatic hypotension have a drop in their blood pressure once they rise from a lying position and may become dizzy or even lose consciousness.
Studies involving risperidone suggest an increased risk of hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions as seen in individuals with diabetes. Though there’s no clear link between risperidone and diabetes, patients should be tested throughout treatment for elevated blood sugars. In addition, persons with risk factors for diabetes, together with obesity or a case history of diabetes, should have their fasting levels of blood glucose tested before beginning treatment and periodically throughout treatment to discover the onset of diabetes. Any patient developing symptoms that suggest diabetes during treatment should be tested for diabetes.

PREPARATIONS:

• Tablets: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg.
• Oral solution: 1 mg/mL.
• Powder for injection: 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 mg.

DOSING

Risperidone may be administered once or twice daily. Initial oral dosing for treating schizophrenic disorder is mostly 2 mg/day. Dose increment may occur in increments of 1-2 mg/day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 4-8 mg/day. In kids older than thirteen years of age, risperidone should be initiated at 0.5 mg once daily, and may be increased by of 0.5 or 1 mg/day, as tolerated, to a suggested dose of 2.5 mg/day. Risperidone may be given with or without meals.
The suggested dose of Risperdal Consta is 12.5 to 25 mg injected into the deltoid or gluteal muscle every fortnight. Dosage shouldn’t be adjusted more often than every 4 weeks. Patients who have never received risperidone are started on oral risperidone so as to guage tolerability. Patients then could also be transitioned to Risperdal Consta if oral risperidone is tolerated.
Bipolar mania is treated with oral doses of 2-3 mg/day at first. Dose could also be increased by 1 mg/day at every 24 hours up to a dose of 6 mg/day. The dose of Risperdal Consta for bipolar mania is 12.5 to 25 mg injected into the deltoid or gluteal muscle every fortnight. Dose shouldn’t be adjusted more often than every 4 weeks.

OVERDOSE

If overdose is suspected, contact emergency services instantly. Symptoms of overdose might include: severe drowsiness/dizziness, fast/irregular heartbeat, unusual/uncontrolled movements, and seizures.

MISSED DOSE

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it’s close to the time of consequent dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Don’t double the dose to catch up.